(air whooshing)(keyboard clicking) (electronic beeping) – Morning everyone.
Welcome to Science on Saturday.
Joanna Albala, I'mthe Science Education Program Manager at LawrenceLivermore National Lab.
And I'd like to welcome you to this year's series of Science on Saturday, Science in Space, and let me tell you, thispresentation is gonna be out of this world.
I'd like to introduce ourspeakers this morning.
First is Dr.
He is a senior staff scientistat Lawrence Livermore Lab, who received his PhD inbiology from Boston University.
Joining him is Dr.
Matthias Frank, who is also a senior staff scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, who received his PhD is physics from the Max Planck Institute and Technical University of Munich.
And we have a specialguest joining them today, Dr.
David Loftus, whois a physician scientist at NASA Ames Research Center, and he received his MD and PhD from Washington University in Saint Louis.
And joining our team is Erin McKay, she's a biology teacherat Tracy High School and she received herBachelor of Science degree and teaching credential from UC Davis.
Without further ado, let's get started.
(applause) – Thank you, Joanna.
So, I'd like to thankyou all, first of all, for coming out today on a Saturday to spend your time with us and for us to have the opportunity to tell you a little bit about some of the things we're working on, because this is not theusual type of project you think of a biologist, such as myself, working on.
And that's specifically onhow we're gonna develop tools for going through this nextera of moving out to the Moon and then moving out to Mars, and what are some of the tools we need from a biologist such as myself to help us do medicaldiagnostics in space.
So, first of all, whatI'm gonna tell you about is why we're concerned about space and a little bit abouttime and distance in space.
And then I'm gonna tell you about some of the problemsassociated with space.
And then what are someof the tools we need to get out and stay out on Mars? And stay healthy while we're out there.
And then we're gonnatalk a little bit about what do we think the nextgeneration of tools should be.
So we're gonna talk a little bit about what we've developed now, and what the new technologyis going to look like, we think, in the futureof five to 10 years or 20 years from now.
So, first of all, space is an expansive distance that we have to crossand it takes a long time.
And maybe we don't think about this a lot, but the ISS, or theInternational Space Station, is roughly about 230 miles away from us when it's directly over usand it's orbiting the Earth.
If we go several more orders of magnitude, the Moon is actually 238, 000 miles, right? And if we go severalmore orders of magnitude, we're talking about Mars, which averages about 140 million miles.
And those numbers sound sort of big but one of the interestingthings about Mars is that when Mars is close to us, Mars is actually only33 million miles away.
When it's on the other side of the Sun, Mars is actually about 240 million miles.
And that's a really bigdistance to talk about in terms of miles so I'm gonnainvite Erin McKay out here to help us understanda little bit more about that expanse and distance.
Erin, here you go.
– Thank you very much.
So, I can't believe he gave the talk and he was talking in miles.
Really miles, this is a science talk, we're gonna talk in kilometers.
So, let's talk about some stuff that will give us some good perspective.
So a kilometer, well, that's a thousand meters, and here's a meter stick, oh, let's show it the right way around.
There's the meter stick.
But that doesn't really help some of you 'cause you only deal with miles so a kilometer is about 2/3 of a mile.
So, let's start withsomething we're familiar with, driving from here inLivermore to, say, Sacramento, on the freeway driving 65 miles an hour, so I guess it must bethe middle of the night if we're actually drivingconsistently 65 miles an hour.
(audience laughing) Well, nicely, about 65 miles an hour is approximately 100 kilometers an hour.
So how long would it takeus to get to Sacramento? It would take us just a little bit over an hour and 20 minutes, wouldn't that be nice.
Okay, well, surprisingly, the ISS is not that much fartherthan driving to Sacramento except for it's driving in space from the surface of the Earth.
So, just under 400 kilometers.
So how long would it take us to drive there in a car if we could? It would take us just about four hours.
Now, that's conceivable.
Driving to the Moon, on the other hand, that's a little bit longer 'cause now we're driving400, 000 kilometers.
And that would take usapproximately a half a year.
That would be a longtime to be in the car.
(audience chuckling) Then we have to considerhow long would it take us to drive at freeway speeds to Mars? I don't know about you, I'm probably gonna be dead on the shortest trip.
And nearly half a millenniumon the longer side, oh, and on the longer trip, wehave to drive through the Sun and that's gonna get a bit hot.
So, let's take a look at, when we're doing proper space travel, at a proper speed, andthat takes us to going 27, 000 kilometers an hour.
So, if we're traveling at that speed, it says we should beable to get to the ISS in less than a minute.
I think it takes a little longer to get to the InternationalSpace Station than a minute.
Oh wait, we don't fly in a straight line.
The trajectory is not in a straight line, and you don't wanna dock at the ISS traveling at 27, 000 kilometers an hour.
Not gonna be a good idea.
It really takes about two days.
And then traveling to the Moon, if you were travelingagain in a straight line, it would be about 14 hours.
But, again, traveling to the moon, it's not a straight trajectory and historically it took us approximately three days to get there.
Now, traveling to Mars, we're hoping to travel just a little bit faster, and going approximately32, 000 kilometers an hour.
And at that speed, itwould take us between a little over over twomonths and a year-and-a-half to get to Mars.
Now, if we were going to begetting to Mars at that time, our real goal is to getthere in about six months.
With the real, planned orbit.
So, now I'm going to hand it back over.
– Thank you, Erin.
So, hopefully, now you have a good sense of time and space andthose kinds of distances we have to cross.
But we should also remember, communication is also a key component.
So, if we're gonna go to Mars, and we're gonna talk to somebody, we're gonna use light asa means of communication, and it's still gonna take time and it's gonna take more and more time the further we move away from Earth.
So, for instance, if I wanna know, “Hey, how are you doing up there on Mars? “And remember, when you turn that screw, “left is loose, right is tight.
” It's gonna take 20 minutesfor them to get that message.
And then if I say, “Hey, don'tforget to turn the lights out “and pick up some milk on your way home, ” it's gonna be another 20minutes for that message to come back and they said, “Well, did you want 2% milk or 3% milk?” So, that's 40 minutes oftime that it's gonna take to communicate across theexpanse of that distance.
The other thing, as Erin pointed out, is that it's not exactly a straight line to anywhere you go.
The orbit of the Earthand the orbit of Mars actually matter and theirposition to each other, and so you only wannaleave at certain times when these two planets areorbiting around the Sun and compared to each other.
So, the trip to Mars is planned to be about a six-month trip out, and we're going to leave when they're, the Earth actually circles the Sun three times faster than Mars does so you gotta leave at the right moment.
And it's gonna be another six months to come back to Earth.
Right? So, it's really exciting, we do have modes of travel that will getus, we believe, to Mars.
But not many people haveactually been out in space.
And we'll talk a little bitmore about that in a moment.
But there still are some inherent risks of moving out into deep space and into our solar system.
And one of the biggest risk is radiation.
The radiation you experience on Earth, that comes from galactic cosmicradiation and from the Sun, is very different on Earth than in space.
Isolation and confinement.
I want you to look aroundyourselves right now and look at the six people around you in the immediate area.
You'll get to spend six months in the immediate area, within about a 200-square-feet space.
And that's it, so, you know, you gotta be good friends, I imagine.
(audience laughing) Reduced gravity.
Once we move off the Earth, there are some profoundeffects about reduced gravity that happen to your body.
Your heart will actuallyremodel and change shape.
Your fluids that are usually distributed based on gravity on Earthwill actually change.
You will actually have a puffy face.
And the liquids movein very different ways.
Also, the environment.
You're gonna be confinedin a tin can, right? Everybody's there, you'rebreathing the same air.
And, if you go outside on thesurface of the Moon or Mars, then you have to worry aboutbringing in that dust, right? It's more than just “wipe your feet” before you come into the house.
So, one thing I wanna point out is we've had over 350 astronautsgo through the NASA program and they've all been to space.
Technically, only 12people, roughly 14 people because somebody alwaysstays on a rocket ship when those people in theApollo mission go to the Moon.
Only 14 people have really been into what we consider deep space.
Outside of the Earth's magnetosphere.
Everybody else in the shuttle missions and on the InternationalSpace Station, as shown here, have been in what'scalled Low Earth Orbit.
And we're protected by this magnetosphere because it actually helpsblock and protect us from solar flare-ups, whichproduce energized particles that come out, and italso protects us from that galactic cosmic radiation that comes from stars going supernovaand other things, and colliding and happening in space.
So, we don't really know what's gonna be beyond that in terms of radiation exposure as we move into deep space.
And radiation is a concern because it actually can break our DNA.
And my cartoon here isto illustrate to you, with all these differentcolors, is your normal DNA.
When the radiation hits the DNA, it actually has enoughenergy to break the bonds in your DNA and splitthat DNA into two pieces.
Those two pieces actually get repaired by molecular machines in your body that are called DNA repair proteins.
But sometimes those DNA repair proteins can actually make a mistakeand cause a mutation.
And I show you one ofthe little color bars is actually a light green, because there was a mutationthe one time it happened.
And I am also showing you an example of cells that get irradiatedand non-irradiated because we can actually lookat these DNA repair breaks happening in real time in the laboratory.
And what I'm showingyou on the top in blue is the nucleus of a cell that gets irradiated or non-irradiated.
So, in the top, it's pretty much all blue because it's not irradiated.
When it's on the bottom, you see these little bright-green dots.
I have a technique offluorescently labeling the DNA repair proteins thatall move in to the place to fix that break in the DNA.
So, if you don't fixthe DNA break correctly, you get a mutation.
The more mutations you pick up, the more likely you are to have something go wrong in the cell.
And that can lead tomutations that accumulate and give you cancer in the end.
So there's a long-term risk of the more radiation exposure you get, the higher the risk isto get and have cancer.
So, so cancer's a long-term risk.
And I don't know ifeverybody's following the news or that you're even aware, actually, astronauts getsick in space all the time.
They get bumps and they get bruises.
And things do actually happen.
So first of all, dizzinessand eye problems.
Over 50% of all the astronauts have a problem withnausea and with vision.
And most of that is caused because of that change in microgravitythat I told you about in that fluid shift.
But they do get kidney stones.
There have been problems withtheir respiratory system, infections, GI tract and stomach problems, and blood clots.
And if you've beenfollowing the news recently, an astronaut on the ISS had a blood clot, it was diagnosed on the station, they talked to themedical people on Earth.
On one of the next missions up to space, they actually put in medicine so that they couldactually fix the problem.
Now, we talked about this time and distance and expanse of space.
So, can you imaginegetting that blood clot on your way to Mars? Right? Medical, and if it became more serious, you're not gonna beable to come back home.
It has to be fixed andit has to be diagnosed in space on your way, there's no coming back.
On the ISS, does anybody have an idea of within how long you can be back on Earth and in the hospital? Within 24 hours you couldbe back on the planet, in the United States, andin a hospital from the ISS.
From the Moon, it might take you roughly that full amount oftime but it can be done.
So, what we're gonna talk about are some of the toolsthat we're developing to help understand how healthy you are, to help keep you healthy, andthen when there's a problem, that we can quickly diagnose it and then move on to fixingthat medical condition.
So, to talk about what's currently done and what's available on theISS and where we're moving, I'm gonna invite a NASA medical officer, Dr.
Loftus out to talk to you.
– Thank you, Matt.
Good morning, everybody.
– [Audience] Good morning.
– So, as a NASA medical officer, I wanna talk to you a little bit about some of the ways that NASA approaches medical problems in space.
So, currently, with astronauts on the International Space Station, this is the approach that we use.
The most important thing is we start out with very healthy astronauts.
That alone gets rid of a lotof potential for problems.
We really have very little in the way of in-flight medical resources.
There's typically no physician on board.
But we do have telemedicinesupport available so the astronauts cantalk to Mission Control in Houston and they can getall the advice that they need.
And, as Matt mentioned, in the event of a serious medical problem, you can evacuate astronauts to Earth, which is a great fall-backposition to have.
So you might wonder about, well, what kind of resources do we actually have in space currently? And you can see from thephotograph to the right that our emergency medical kit is really nothing more thana glorified first aid kit, if you will, there's reallyvery little available.
So, as we think aboutextending NASA missions into deep space, we'regonna need a lot more technology to supportthe health of astronauts.
Well, if we could put together a wish list of what we'd really like to have for these deep space missions, certainly we'd love tohave medical check-ups with a doctor on board, that would be really great.
We'd love to have theability to perform surgery and even to take biopsyspecimens from time to time.
It would be great if wehad x-ray capability, or the capability to do otherforms of medical imaging.
But what we'd really likeis shown in that panel on the lower right-handcorner of the slide.
That would be a clinical laboratory.
Because a clinical laboratory is just an amazingresource that allows you to figure out what's going on and to help make a diagnosis.
Well, as a hematologist, I have to tell you that the most important specimen that we use in the clinical laboratory is blood.
Blood is really the gold standard and it's just an incrediblyrich source of information on which to base a diagnosis.
So, as we go into deepspace, at a minimum, we'd like our new medicaldiagnostic technology to have the capability ofperforming an analysis on blood.
Now, we could do conventional blood draws, shown in the panel on the left.
That would certainly be possible.
But what we'd really love to do is medical diagnostics onjust a drop or two of blood using novel microfluidic systems that are shown in thatphotograph on the right.
So, how do we work with bloodin a clinical laboratory? Well, I'm gonna tell youone thing about blood that's really, really cool.
Which is that, if youput blood into a tube, and then you centrifuge it, you spin it around at high speed, you can separate bloodinto different components and that's a really helpful thing to do.
So, after centrifugation, the plasma goes to the top, the red blood cells go to the bottom, and at the layer in betweenthose two components, you have the white blood cells.
All three of these components have diagnostic informationthat's of value.
There are more than athousand proteins available in the plasma.
The white cells have all kindsof diagnostic information.
And even the red cells can provide a clue to what's going on with your health.
Well, at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, we're in the process of developing a very new way of handling blood specimens and I'll just show youwhat that looks like.
It's based upon microfluidics.
It's on a disc.
This simple disc iswhere we place the blood.
And we spin the disc very fast and by spinning the disc, we're able to separateblood into its components.
And we can do a reallynifty set of medical tests on this very, very small specimen.
So, as you can see in thepicture, we use the disc.
And we use an instrumentwhich is shown in blue, which was developed atthe University of Arizona.
And that allows us to look at the different blood components and to get readings in afairly short space of time.
The system is not unlikethe full-size blood tubes that I showed in an earlier slide.
When we spin the disc, we're able to separate the red cells, the plasma, and the white blood cells, each into their own zoneson this microfluidic chip.
And then the technology that's in that blue box that I showed allows us to generate optical signals shown on the right asthat big purple signal, which give you a sense of the presence of a critical protein in the patient's blood that is a clue to diagnosis.
So that's how we use this system to, just with a drop or two of blood, provide information about thehealth status of astronauts.
Well, I would love to tell you that blood is the best and the only diagnostic fluid.
But, in some cases, in fact, we have to do things a little differently.
– [Matt] Doc! – [David] I think you'll appreciate that.
– Doc, I need some help here.
– Oh my goodness.
– I was out there workingon those solar panels and I tried to do a split.
I think I pulled somethin'.
Or I'm having a heart attack.
I don't know what it isbut you gotta help me, Doc.
– That's not good, that's notgood, but I think we can help.
Where does it hurt? – It's just everywhere, Doc.
My chest especially, you gotta help me.
– Oh, boy, well I can see that, we'd really like to geta blood sample from you, that would be great.
I've got my medical equipment here.
I have a tourniquet, we could use that, and I have this lovelysyringe and needle– – Doc, Doc, you're gonna putthe tourniquet on my tongue? – (laughing) Oh, I guessthat's not gonna work.
– It's gonna take me 30 minutesto get out of this suit.
– I guess that's not gonna work.
Well, can you take off the space suit? Could you do that? – 30 minutes from now, yes, Doc.
– Oh, gosh, 30 minutes, that's an awfully long time.
Well, I see.
Gosh, you know, even gettinga drop or two of blood for our new medical analyzeris gonna be a problem.
Wouldn't it be great, I seeyou can lower your visor, wouldn't it be great if we couldget a sample of your breath and do medical diagnostics on your breath? Wouldn't that be fantastic? – It'd be great, Doc, but I'm dyin' now.
(audience laughing) – Hang on.
So, with that as an introduction, I would like to nowintroduce Matthias Frank, who's gonna talk about novel technology (audience applauding)being developed for breath analysis formedical diagnostics.
– Thank you, David.
And thanks, Matt, this was great.
Yeah, wouldn't it be great if we could use some kind of non-invasive diagnostics to diagnose people, astronauts and others.
Could it work with breath? So this is one other areathat we're working on at Livermore and manyother groups in the world.
They're looking into breath analysis as a potential tool fornon-invasive diagnostics.
The reason why this could work is that your breath, the airyou inhale and exhale, is actually in very close contact with the blood inside yourlungs, in the alveoli, right where the gas exchange happens where the oxygen youbreathe in goes in the blood and the carbon dioxidethat's produced in the body goes out and is exhaled in your breath.
In the same process, there's a lot of trace compounds that are also dissolved in the blood.
In particular, volatile compounds.
Volatile meaning they can can't be in a gas form at room temperature.
They're present in trace concentrations and they go into thegas phase in the alveoli and are exhaled.
And you may notice that if somebody had garlic for dinner last night, their breath still smells like garlic or the digestion products the next day.
So there's certainlycompounds that are produced in the body that come out in breath.
So, somebody said breathis a window into blood.
And I think there's a real opportunity to look into using breathas a diagnostic tool.
Breath actually is not only these exhaled volatile compoundsthat are in a gas form, but there's alsomicrodroplets and nanodroplets that people exhale.
You see larger droplets when people cough but there's also very small droplets, micrometer-sized dropletsin breath, in normal breath.
And these can carry largermolecules, like proteins, DNA, they can also carry viruses and bacteria.
So, all these components of breath are potentially useful for diagnostics.
Now, there's challenges.
I mentioned there's manydifferent compounds.
And the breath compositionis very complex, I think up to about 3, 000 different volatile organic compounds have been found in breath of humans.
And it's like looking fora needle in a haystack.
What makes things more complicated is that the composition of breath varies, not just person to person, but also for the same person over time depending on your personalhabits, your exercise, your diet, whether you have disease, your physiological condition, and others.
So, and also environmental exposures.
If you inhale any kind of fumes, they may be in your breath days later.
So it makes it a little challenging to find the right markers for disease.
So I wanted to talk about briefly how we go about this marker discovery.
And, you know, first wehave to sample breath.
And I just brought a very simple device that we use sometimes.
There's many differentdevices to collect breath but here's a simple one that we're using.
It's called the RTube, it'scommercially available, it's disposable, so youuse one sampler per person, so you don't have toworry about contamination.
You can use that to sampleboth the condensate, the droplets, or the vapor.
So if you want tocollect the liquid phase, what you can do is you use a cool device, there's an aluminum sleevethat you can put in the freezer or you can put in liquidnitrogen to cool it.
We just put it over this tube.
The tube has a mouthpiece and some valves that allow your breath inand out through that device.
And because it's cold, itsometimes has a sleeve.
And so you sit there and just breathe, breathe normally forabout five to 10 minutes.
Now, that's pretty easy except every time you tell asubject to breathe normally, that's the last thing they do.
They go (heavy breathing)(audience laughing) But it actually works quite well.
So you do this for five to 10 minutes and then you have about a milliliter or half a milliliter of liquid, breath condensate in there, that it can cap off and taketo an analytic instrument.
Now, if you wanted tocollect the breath vapor, this is something we actuallydeveloped at Livermore, and that company now tookon as a product as well.
You can add a little vapor sampler.
This is called a SPME fiber.
And what it is is a littledevice that's the size of a pen.
If you push this plunger, there's a little syringe comingout and inside the syringe is a little absorbent materialfiber that you can push out and that, shown on the picture back there, yeah, the SPME fiber.
That actually collectsthese volatile compounds.
They absorb on that fiber.
And then you can pullthat back into the device and take that to aninstrument to do the analysis.
So, that's the easy part.
I should say, yeah, I mentioned there'smany different types of samplers people have developed.
If you're concerned of collecting just a certain type of breath, right, if you breathe with this thing, you collect the entire breath.
But some of the compoundsthat are in your breath might actually be contaminatedwith what's in your mouth.
So if people want to just see what really comes out of the lung, they take usually themiddle part of the breath, and there's some devices thatare a little more complicated, that just collect themiddle part of the breath.
So then you take your liquid sample or your SPME fiber sample to a lab and they can put it in an instrument and shown here is a graduatestudent Kristen Reese, she's at Michigan State University, doing her thesis work atLivermore Lab with us, operating there what'scalled a GC MS instrument.
And this instrumenttakes that fiber sample that absorbs the volatilecompounds that are on that fiber, and sends them throughsome analysis chamber, they get separated, the compoundsget separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry andout come outcome and data.
What's shown on the leftside are chromatograms, so data from breath samples, each color is a different sample.
These samples were actuallytaken from the same person over the course of a few days.
And what you see is that, yeah, these, each one of these peaks, even the little ones, are compounds, volatile organic compounds.
What you see is that overall the composition is relativelysimilar for this person.
But then there's littledifferences in between.
And, yeah, in this case, they were probably justthese normal variations that I talked about.
But if you do an experiment where you look for some disease markers, yeah, you wanna pay attention to some of these differences between people.
You can do the same thing with a liquid, and I'm not showing it here, there's another instrument called LT MS that does a liquid analysis and you get similar kind of data out.
So I mentioned a needle in a haystack.
Yeah, there's many, many compounds that are always there andthey vary up and down.
What you have to do if tryto find markers for disease, you basically do anexperiment where you have a whole bunch of peoplewho have a condition, are sick, and you have acontrol group that are healthy.
You take many breath samplesand you basically compare them and then you see which ofthese little differences that you find are actually consistently associated with the diseasegroup versus the healthy group.
What's very interestingabout breath analysis is it's not limited torespiratory disease.
So you think, yeah, because it's breath, it's all kind of lung-related diseases.
It's actually sensitiveto systemic effects.
And I mentioned this gas, this exchange between the compounds in blood and thecompounds in the exhaled air, so you can find markers thatpoint to systemic diseases in breath as well.
And there's actually anumber of breath diagnostics that are currently usedfor airway inflammation, stomach ulcers, there's one specific one for heart transplant rejection.
And there's many othersthat people are working on and some of them are fairlyclose to actually applying them.
In particular in the area of cancer or respiratory infections.
What we also need towork on for space travel to study the effects ofreduced gravity, bone loss, can we detect that in earlymarkers for that in breath.
But in particular theeffects of radiation.
So as we move breathdiagnostics into space, you saw that, yeah, howwe do the marker discovery experiments usinglab-based instrumentation, the big instruments, they're certainly too big andtoo heavy to take into space.
So we need something that'sactually much more compact.
And this is where other instrumentation comes in that's currentlyunder development in various placesincluding NASA, NASA Ames.
It's called the E-nose.
What is an E-nose? Well, before we talk about an E-nose, let's talk about a nose first.
So, what's a nose? The human nose.
A nose has receptors inthe cells in the nose that bind these compoundsthat are in the air, volatile organiccompounds, other compounds, and there's different kinds of receptors, I think the human nose hasabout 400 different types.
And as these compoundsbind, they cause signals.
And then the pattern of these signals from the different receptors basically creates a smell or the sensation of smell.
And with an E-nose, we're basically trying to mimic the same thingexcept we don't have biological receptors butwe have an electronic chip that has functionalized surfaces, little areas, each one is functionalized in a slightly different way, so the differentcompounds, trace compounds, you have in the air, in the exhaled air, or in mindful air, bind to these different areas with different probabilities and so that create a certain pattern of how these molecules bind.
And the nice thing about these chips is you can actually read thesignal out electronically.
So one device that NASA Amesis working on is an E-nose that's based on carbon nanotubesthat are functionalized.
So as these volatile organic compounds or other gases bind tothese sensor elements, they can cause a change in resistance that can be read out withan electrical signal.
And similar to the nose, you have different areas that have different functionalizations so you can get a signal pattern out of your E-nose that corresponds to a smell.
Our colleague, Dr.
Jing Li, at NASA Ames, has actually pioneeredthat for the last 10 years.
And she has pushed thattechnology to a point where these electronic chips can be integrated in a little device that attaches at the bottom of an iPhone, just plugs right in.
So this is an actual iPhone with an actual E-nose attached to it.
And this was originally developed by NASA to just monitor the environmental air in space stations and spacecraft, look for contaminantsand things like that.
But, yeah, Jing andothers, together with us, we are looking into usingE-nose for breath analysis and trying to push it towards detecting some of the breath markerswe discover in the lab, with these big instruments.
Here's a small demonstrationhow this device would work.
So, this was actually found at NASA Ames.
So you see an iPhone and on the bottom is that E-nose attached.
Don't see this very wellhere but it's in action, a monitor, a littlerobot and in this area, there's an area that hassome sort of ammonia, it was actually I think glass cleaner that was sprayed in a corner.
And so the robot moves aroundas the E-nose is sampling.
And you see on the, there'sbasically an app on the iPhone that reads out that E-nose, and each one of these colored curves is a different sensor pixel, sensor area, on that E-nose, sensitivefor certain trace gases.
So, if we have that, (footsteps clomping) let's just see how this would play out now between Matt and David.
– All right, I'm ready to give some blood.
– Let's try the E-nose instead.
– I think that's gonnabe just what we need.
You're not having a heart attack.
– Oh, that's great, Doc.
That's great, where doI get one of these now? – Well, it's not availablefor human use yet, we're working on it.
(audience laughing) – Okay, all right.
– [Matthias] Sorry, we have to work on it.
– All right, so, I hope you enjoyed today's discussion and seminar.
And you get a little bit of a feeling for some of the technologies that we're actually working on for NASA.
And so one of the goals, though, of course, is to take these two technologies and actually combinethem into a single box that actually can be integrated into the rocket ship oreven onto an EVA suit such as the demo suit I'm wearing here.
And so, basically, having the ability to do both blood-based biomarkers, combined with breath analysis, would actually be the most ideal condition because you can do a whole lot of different types of health diagnostics.
And even human research in space about what are all those effects of all those other things, such as the microgravityor reduced gravity, the radiation, social interactions that can cause stress and everything as we go to Mars.
So, with that, you know, and having that integrated, it means even when I'm out in space or on the surface of Mars, I can quickly actually test myself using breath analysis togive me some indication of what my current health status is, even if I'm just a little stressed-out about just being out there.
So with that, I wannainvite Erin McKay back out.
And hopefully you guyshave some questions.
Thank you very much.
(audience applause) (air whooshing)(intense bass music).